祁连| 恒山| 南昌县| 安新| 云梦| 乌拉特中旗| 邓州| 洋山港| 蔚县| 庆云| 鹤山| 台中县| 彭阳| 沅陵| 湘乡| 佛坪| 龙南| 三原| 衡南| 慈利| 丰镇| 叶县| 上海| 东宁| 北流| 运城| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 钟山| 康保| 嘉兴| 白山| 凌海| 义马| 巴马| 楚雄| 德保| 泉港| 双鸭山| 偃师| 措美| 镇雄| 香港| 新密| 平邑| 榕江| 蕉岭| 阿瓦提| 衡山| 松阳| 长岛| 南海| 息烽| 连平| 贡嘎| 榕江| 梓潼| 双江| 榆林| 灵宝| 柳城| 莆田| 金门| 昌平| 榆中| 五通桥| 珠穆朗玛峰| 冀州| 丹寨| 仙桃| 金川| 霸州| 临清| 德昌| 商洛| 长海| 简阳| 新巴尔虎左旗| 天池| 安远| 吉安市| 抚州| 绛县| 鲁甸| 邳州| 射洪| 吴桥| 台州| 金乡| 巴中| 深圳| 黄山区| 香河| 炉霍| 扎赉特旗| 阿坝| 藤县| 紫阳| 凯里| 永泰| 阆中| 定远| 洛阳| 新晃| 繁昌| 三穗| 香格里拉| 喀喇沁旗| 五华| 海沧| 牙克石| 阜新市| 柳州| 华容| 龙江| 独山子| 广州| 天峻| 连云区| 林芝县| 徽州| 商南| 德阳| 沐川| 察布查尔| 双牌| 察布查尔| 通辽| 固镇| 靖安| 泸水| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 苍山| 白云| 大田| 株洲县| 鲅鱼圈| 枣强| 南和| 呼和浩特| 且末| 白碱滩| 石嘴山| 酒泉| 芜湖市| 加格达奇| 永新| 龙游| 兴和| 东山| 墨竹工卡| 八一镇| 江油| 临川| 罗城| 莆田| 揭阳| 嘉黎| 江安| 甘德| 定日| 竹山| 黔西| 当涂| 乌拉特后旗| 伊通| 龙海| 盐边| 奉贤| 禄劝| 安溪| 怀远| 芜湖县| 和政| 离石| 南木林| 铜梁| 富顺| 湖州| 济阳| 赫章| 富源| 鞍山| 徐闻| 唐县| 井研| 东兰| 池州| 顺平| 阜新市| 昭通| 岐山| 遂昌| 景县| 翁牛特旗| 舞阳| 防城区| 平利| 王益| 安仁| 张北| 大港| 八达岭| 广汉| 册亨| 左贡| 阿鲁科尔沁旗| 甘泉| 儋州| 乐清| 威信| 梁子湖| 扶绥| 三台| 昌都| 马边| 钓鱼岛| 平塘| 昌江| 衡山| 桃江| 潮阳| 富平| 灌南| 雷波| 舞阳| 遵义市| 龙岩| 礼泉| 惠东| 邓州| 巴中| 微山| 垦利| 富顺| 叙永| 勉县| 宜黄| 南丹| 洪泽| 上饶县| 花垣| 施甸| 巴彦淖尔| 西山| 甘孜| 酒泉| 南漳| 沭阳| 兴平| 衡阳县| 临湘| 阜新蒙古族自治县| 顺德| 鹰潭| 信丰| 莘县| 林周| 康乐| 黔江| 清徐| 冀州| 新蔡| 太康|

軍事專家三個關鍵詞解讀空軍提升海上方向實戰能力

2019-08-23 04:50 来源:中国涪陵网

  軍事專家三個關鍵詞解讀空軍提升海上方向實戰能力

  AresidentmakesZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)PeoplepickleavestomakeZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinforestofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)AwomancleansleavesformakingZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinarivuletofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)Volunteersmakezongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,fortheelderlypersonsofnofamilytocelebratetheDuanwuFestivalatacommunityinZhenjiangCity,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/ShiYucheng),2017showstwilightthroughtheSeventeenArchBridgeintheSummerPalaceinBeijing,capitalofChina.(Xinhua/LiuXianguo)China,700activitieswillbeheldacrossChinatocelebratethisyearsculturalandnaturalheritageday,,whichwasestablishedtosafegstakealookat20culturalheritagesitesinChina,,originallynamedQingyiYuan,ortheGardenofClearRipples,wasanimperialgardenconstructedin1750byEmperorQianlonginabidtocelebratehismother,emperorsandempressesspenttheirleisuretimethere,eselandscapegardendesign,,capitalofsouthwestChinasTibetAutonomousRegion,,2018,togreettheSpringFestivalandTibetanNewYear.(Xinhua/Chogo),LhasaThePotalaPalace,winterpalaceoftheDalaiLama,hassymbolizedTibetanBuddhismanditscen,madeupoftheWhiteandRedPalaceswiththeirancillarybuildings,isbuiltonRedMountaininthecenterofLhasaValley,atanaltitudeof3,,JokhangTempleMonasteryandNorbulingkawereaddedtothelistrespectivelyin1994,,2018showsthesnowsceneryofWestLakeinHangzhou,eastChinaZhejiangProvince,,2018.(Xinhua/HuangZongzhi),,WestLakeCulturalLandscapeofHangzhouhasinspiredfamouspoets,,pagodas,pavilions,gardensandornamentaltrees,,2018showsseaofcloudsafterrainfallatHuangyaguansectionoftheGreatWallinTianjin,northChina.(Xinhua/YangYushan),theGreatWallwindsupanddownacrossdeserts,grasslands,mountainsandplateaus,,horsetracks,watchtowers,andsheltersonthewall,,000years,,itisstilloneofthemostappealingattractionsallaroundt,oneofthegreatestwondersoftheworld,,northwestChinasGansuProvince,,2016.(Photo/Xinhua),Gansuprovince,theMogaocaves,alsoknownastheThousand-BuddhaCaves,aretheworldslargest,mostrichlyendowed,,atthecrossroadsoftradeaswellasreligious,,thecarvingofthecavesstartedin366ADandcontinuedforabout1,,housingabout45,000squaremetersofmuralsandmorethan2,000paintedsculptures,,wi(Photo/Xinhua)sYuanDynastyinChina,slegendarycapitalcity,designedbytheMongolrulersChineseadvisor,LiuBingzhong,,includingtemples,palaces,tombs,nomadicencampmentsandtheTiefangangCanal,,,:/FengJun):anImperialSacrificialAltarinBeijingLocatedinthesouthernpartofBeijing,theTempleofHeavenisamagnificentcomplexoffirs,andisthelargestoneinBeijingamongseveralroyalaltarstoHeaven,Earth,theSun,,SoutheastChinasFujianprovince,onDec9,2016.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WangDongming)e15thand20thcenturiesover120kilometersinthesouth-westofFujianprovince,irfunctionexe,,efilm,resembling"scarfs"and"dresses",aspartoftheirrestorationintheEmperorQinshihuangsMausoleumSiteMuseuminXian,Shaanxiprovince,Feb23,2015.(Photo/CFP)ntainingterracottawarriorsandhorsesarelocatedinLintongcounty,nearXi’ancity,,,themausoleumislaidoutinlinewiththedimensionsofXianyang,,,,ridianGate(WuMen)ofthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,April17,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)ForbiddenCity,locatedinthecenterofBeijing,,,,(anareaenclosedbyfourpoles).In1924,theimperialfamilyoftheQingDynastywasremovedfromtheForbiddenCity,age,nearMountHuangshan,Anhuiprovince,inMay.(Photo:ChinaDaily/WangHao),HuangshancityinsouthAnhuiprovince,thetwotraditionalvillagesXidiandHongcunarearchitecturalcomplexes,,landscape,architecturalform,decorationandconstructiontechniquesallretaint,northChinasShanxiProvince,April22,,listedasaUNESCOWorldCulturalHeritagesitein2001,willwitnessatourismpeakastheMayDayholidayiscoming.(Photo:Xinhua/YanYan),some16kmwestofDatongcity,Shanxiprovince,theYungangGrottoeswerebuiltagainstthemountainandextendaboutonekm(),000statueswithinacarvedareaof18,000squaremeters,YungangGrottoesrepresenttheoutstandin,withtheirstrictunityoflayoutanddesign,coPoliticalPartyForumvisitLiuyuanorLingeringGardeninSuzhou,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,April22,2013.(Xinhua/ShenPeng),whichseekstorecreateminiaturenaturallandscapes,isnotillustratedanybetterthanintheninegardensinthehistoriccityofSuzhou,’,2017showstheviewofChengdesummerresortinnorthChinasHebeiProvince.(Xinhua/LiuMancang),ChengdeIntermsofthegenerallayout,architecturalstyles,constructiontechniques,decorationdetailsandgardenlandscape,theMountainResort,avastcomplexofpalacesandadministrativeandceremonialbuildingsbuiltbetween1703and1792,representsthebroadexchangeandconvergencebetweenHancultureandtheethniccultures-Confucianism,BuddhismandTaoism-andthearchitecturalstylesbetweenChina,theMountainResorthastemplesofmanyarchitecturalstylesandimperialgardensblendeffortlesslyintoalandscapeoflakes,,,centralChinasHenanProvince,April17,(Xinhua/ZhuXiang)e(618-907).Located13kmsouthofLuoyang,Henanprovince,theLongmenGrottoesareconcentratedontheeastandwestcliffsoftheYishuiRiver,,duringtheNorthernWeiDynasty,Grottoes,liketheTwentyGemsofLongmenCalligraphyandZhuSuiliang’sstonetablets,,madein641inhonorofthemotherofthefourthsonofEmperorTaizong,,,LushanMountainisoneofthemostrenownedmountainsandtourismresortsinthecountry.(Photo/ShanghaiDaily),LushanMountainisoneofChina’,whichwasinscribedontheWorldHeritageListin1996,i,LushanisthebirthplaceofChineselandscapepoetry,plus,thefamousLushanPlenumrepresentsitsroleinChina’,,southwestChinasYunnanProvince,,SCOin1997.(Photo:Xinhua/YangZongyou),lyingontheLijiangplainatanelevationof2,400metersinsouthwestYunnanprovinceofChina,alandstrategifelementsfromseveralcultures,anditsancientwater-supplysy,WudangMountain,alsoknownasTaiheMountain,isbothafamousscenicspotandaholysiteofTaoism,Chinasindigenousreligion.(Photo/)anjiangkouincentralHubeiprovince,theWudangMountainsarehometoafamouscomplexofancientpalaces,periodofnearly1,,anannualeventputonbythespecialadministrativeregionsgovernment,sonSundaynight,(Photo:Xinhua/ZhangJinjia)’straditionalChinesedesign,itstandswitnesst’smissionaryroleintheFarEastwhilealso,formingthemostuniqueblendofculturalheritageexistinginChina’,,clairaudienceandtheJadeEmperorintheDazuRockCarvingsinChongqingmunicipality.(Photo/TheofficialWechataccountofDazuRockCarvings),,’,50,000statuesand100,000inscribedwithChinesecharacter,1999.

CraftswomanLiWenlingshowsherpaper-cuttingworksatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsafolkmusicperformanceatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsateaartshowatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)CraftsmanMuXujianshowsdoughsculpturemakingtojournalistsatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)CraftsmanMuXujianmakesdoughsculpturesatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng),FacebookandTwitterareun,too,,ary2018,fofthetotal(56percent)socialmediareports,,foodsafety,healthcare,andsociale"self-media"andsocialmedia,andbyre-reportingit,thetraditionalmediacauseadelugeoffakenews,whichlinefakenews,,ewsreportsareauthentic,comprehensive,tpostedonsocialmediaplatforms,andstrictlyregulatetheeditingandcompilingprocessonmedianetworkplatforms,includingmobilenewsapplication,sCongress,Chinastoplegislature,passedtheCybersecurityLawinNovember2016,rmationorcontrollinguserdevices,soastocheck"unequalcompetitionandunlawfulprofits".Accordingtostatistics,NationalInternetInformationSystemofficialsinterviewed2003websitecompaniesinaccordancewiththeCybersecurityLawin2017,suspended1,370websitesandpermanently"blocked"abatchof"self-media"accountswith"vulgarcontent".Complaintsagainstfalseiesbyusingac"WeChatAnti-rumorAssistant"inJune2017,whichhelpsuser,theWeChatOfficialAccountPlatformhasinvitedanumberofprofessionalthird-partyinstitutionstostrengthentheanti-ediaoutlets,nationalinternetpolice,andprofessionalWeChataccountsofusersfromindustriessuchashealthcare,scienceandtechnology,agriculture,"2018WeChatRumorGovernanceReport"inMarch,sayingtheWeChatanti-rumorcenter,itsWeChatofficialaccount,andthe"WeChatAnti-rumorAssistant"mini-programworktogethertorefuterumors,anddisseminatedabout490milli,andanno"rumor",andlaunchedthisfeatureinApril2012,,markinganddeleting,itytodevelop"informationization"inordertobuildChinareformoftheglobalcyberspacegovernancesystembystickingtoamultilateralapproachwithmulti-partyparticipation,fromthegovernment,internationalorganizations,internetenterprises,techgroups,

  GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)PhototakenonJune7,2018showsexhibitsattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChina(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)AcuratorintroducestheAfricanArtExhibitionheldinsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)JournaliststakephotosattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)PhototakenonJune7,2018showsexhibitsattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChina(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)AjournalisttakesphotosattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)

  ,2017showstwilightthroughtheSeventeenArchBridgeintheSummerPalaceinBeijing,capitalofChina.(Xinhua/LiuXianguo)China,700activitieswillbeheldacrossChinatocelebratethisyearsculturalandnaturalheritageday,,whichwasestablishedtosafegstakealookat20culturalheritagesitesinChina,,originallynamedQingyiYuan,ortheGardenofClearRipples,wasanimperialgardenconstructedin1750byEmperorQianlonginabidtocelebratehismother,emperorsandempressesspenttheirleisuretimethere,eselandscapegardendesign,,capitalofsouthwestChinasTibetAutonomousRegion,,2018,togreettheSpringFestivalandTibetanNewYear.(Xinhua/Chogo),LhasaThePotalaPalace,winterpalaceoftheDalaiLama,hassymbolizedTibetanBuddhismanditscen,madeupoftheWhiteandRedPalaceswiththeirancillarybuildings,isbuiltonRedMountaininthecenterofLhasaValley,atanaltitudeof3,,JokhangTempleMonasteryandNorbulingkawereaddedtothelistrespectivelyin1994,,2018showsthesnowsceneryofWestLakeinHangzhou,eastChinaZhejiangProvince,,2018.(Xinhua/HuangZongzhi),,WestLakeCulturalLandscapeofHangzhouhasinspiredfamouspoets,,pagodas,pavilions,gardensandornamentaltrees,,2018showsseaofcloudsafterrainfallatHuangyaguansectionoftheGreatWallinTianjin,northChina.(Xinhua/YangYushan),theGreatWallwindsupanddownacrossdeserts,grasslands,mountainsandplateaus,,horsetracks,watchtowers,andsheltersonthewall,,000years,,itisstilloneofthemostappealingattractionsallaroundt,oneofthegreatestwondersoftheworld,,northwestChinasGansuProvince,,2016.(Photo/Xinhua),Gansuprovince,theMogaocaves,alsoknownastheThousand-BuddhaCaves,aretheworldslargest,mostrichlyendowed,,atthecrossroadsoftradeaswellasreligious,,thecarvingofthecavesstartedin366ADandcontinuedforabout1,,housingabout45,000squaremetersofmuralsandmorethan2,000paintedsculptures,,wi(Photo/Xinhua)sYuanDynastyinChina,slegendarycapitalcity,designedbytheMongolrulersChineseadvisor,LiuBingzhong,,includingtemples,palaces,tombs,nomadicencampmentsandtheTiefangangCanal,,,:/FengJun):anImperialSacrificialAltarinBeijingLocatedinthesouthernpartofBeijing,theTempleofHeavenisamagnificentcomplexoffirs,andisthelargestoneinBeijingamongseveralroyalaltarstoHeaven,Earth,theSun,,SoutheastChinasFujianprovince,onDec9,2016.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WangDongming)e15thand20thcenturiesover120kilometersinthesouth-westofFujianprovince,irfunctionexe,,efilm,resembling"scarfs"and"dresses",aspartoftheirrestorationintheEmperorQinshihuangsMausoleumSiteMuseuminXian,Shaanxiprovince,Feb23,2015.(Photo/CFP)ntainingterracottawarriorsandhorsesarelocatedinLintongcounty,nearXi’ancity,,,themausoleumislaidoutinlinewiththedimensionsofXianyang,,,,ridianGate(WuMen)ofthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,April17,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)ForbiddenCity,locatedinthecenterofBeijing,,,,(anareaenclosedbyfourpoles).In1924,theimperialfamilyoftheQingDynastywasremovedfromtheForbiddenCity,age,nearMountHuangshan,Anhuiprovince,inMay.(Photo:ChinaDaily/WangHao),HuangshancityinsouthAnhuiprovince,thetwotraditionalvillagesXidiandHongcunarearchitecturalcomplexes,,landscape,architecturalform,decorationandconstructiontechniquesallretaint,northChinasShanxiProvince,April22,,listedasaUNESCOWorldCulturalHeritagesitein2001,willwitnessatourismpeakastheMayDayholidayiscoming.(Photo:Xinhua/YanYan),some16kmwestofDatongcity,Shanxiprovince,theYungangGrottoeswerebuiltagainstthemountainandextendaboutonekm(),000statueswithinacarvedareaof18,000squaremeters,YungangGrottoesrepresenttheoutstandin,withtheirstrictunityoflayoutanddesign,coPoliticalPartyForumvisitLiuyuanorLingeringGardeninSuzhou,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,April22,2013.(Xinhua/ShenPeng),whichseekstorecreateminiaturenaturallandscapes,isnotillustratedanybetterthanintheninegardensinthehistoriccityofSuzhou,’,2017showstheviewofChengdesummerresortinnorthChinasHebeiProvince.(Xinhua/LiuMancang),ChengdeIntermsofthegenerallayout,architecturalstyles,constructiontechniques,decorationdetailsandgardenlandscape,theMountainResort,avastcomplexofpalacesandadministrativeandceremonialbuildingsbuiltbetween1703and1792,representsthebroadexchangeandconvergencebetweenHancultureandtheethniccultures-Confucianism,BuddhismandTaoism-andthearchitecturalstylesbetweenChina,theMountainResorthastemplesofmanyarchitecturalstylesandimperialgardensblendeffortlesslyintoalandscapeoflakes,,,centralChinasHenanProvince,April17,(Xinhua/ZhuXiang)e(618-907).Located13kmsouthofLuoyang,Henanprovince,theLongmenGrottoesareconcentratedontheeastandwestcliffsoftheYishuiRiver,,duringtheNorthernWeiDynasty,Grottoes,liketheTwentyGemsofLongmenCalligraphyandZhuSuiliang’sstonetablets,,madein641inhonorofthemotherofthefourthsonofEmperorTaizong,,,LushanMountainisoneofthemostrenownedmountainsandtourismresortsinthecountry.(Photo/ShanghaiDaily),LushanMountainisoneofChina’,whichwasinscribedontheWorldHeritageListin1996,i,LushanisthebirthplaceofChineselandscapepoetry,plus,thefamousLushanPlenumrepresentsitsroleinChina’,,southwestChinasYunnanProvince,,SCOin1997.(Photo:Xinhua/YangZongyou),lyingontheLijiangplainatanelevationof2,400metersinsouthwestYunnanprovinceofChina,alandstrategifelementsfromseveralcultures,anditsancientwater-supplysy,WudangMountain,alsoknownasTaiheMountain,isbothafamousscenicspotandaholysiteofTaoism,Chinasindigenousreligion.(Photo/)anjiangkouincentralHubeiprovince,theWudangMountainsarehometoafamouscomplexofancientpalaces,periodofnearly1,,anannualeventputonbythespecialadministrativeregionsgovernment,sonSundaynight,(Photo:Xinhua/ZhangJinjia)’straditionalChinesedesign,itstandswitnesst’smissionaryroleintheFarEastwhilealso,formingthemostuniqueblendofculturalheritageexistinginChina’,,clairaudienceandtheJadeEmperorintheDazuRockCarvingsinChongqingmunicipality.(Photo/TheofficialWechataccountofDazuRockCarvings),,’,50,000statuesand100,000inscribedwithChinesecharacter,1999.Special:ScholarsandofficialsfromaroundtheworldhavebeenspeakinghighlyofChinesePresidentXiJinpingskeynotespeechdeliveredSundayattheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO),XicalledoncountriesinvolvedintheregionalbloctoworkcloselytobuildanSCOcommunitywithasharedfuture,movetowardanewtypeofinternationalrelations,andbuildanopen,inclusive,cleanandbeautifulworldthatenjoyslastingpeace,,directorgeneraloftheInstituteofNationalSecurityStudiesSriLanka,saidXiscallformovingtowardanewtypeofinternationalrelations"capturedthezeitgeistoftheunfoldingmodernworldorder.""Asiannations,includingSriLanka,shouldfullysupportthisefforttocreateamorestableandbetterworldorder,",aninternationalrelationsexpertbasedinBelgrade,Serbia,saidXipresented"positive,visionaryviewsonhowtoapproachglobaleconomic,socialandsecuritychallenges.""XishowedtheworldtheSCOsroleinglobalgovernanceandclearedthewayinordertoreinforcepeace,win-wincooperationinamultipolarworldwithoutgeopoliticalconstraintsandtherelicsofisolationism,"ilkRoadConnectivityResearchCenter,,anassociateprofessorinhistorywhochairsthestudyofsocialdevelopmenttheoriesofAsianandAfricannationsatRussia,saidChinaseekstoundertakeseriousinternationalobligationsthatconsolidateitsstatusofamajorcountryintheworld."ThisisevidentinanumberofXisstatements,whichincludetheneedtofillthegapofdevelopmentlevelsamongcountries,andtheannouncementbyXiof(Chinas)contributiontotheSCOInterbankConsortium,"(-dollar)equivalentspecsspeechwherehesaidtheSCOshould"championequality,mutuallearning,dialogueandinclusivenessbetweencivilizations"and"followtheprincipleofachievingsharedgrowththroughdiscussionandcollaborationinengaginginglobalgovernance,"TigranSargsyan,formerprimeministerofArmenia,saidthoseremarksshowedthatChin,nowchairmanoftheBoardoftheEurasianEconomicCommission,saidsuchanattitudeishelpfulinsolvingproblemseffectivelyandsearchingftionforestablishinglong-termcooperativerelationswithothercountriesandachievingcommonprosperity,,asinologistandprofessorofChinesestudiesattheNewDelhi-basedJawaharlalNehruUniversity,thinksthatXisemphasisonthe"ShanghaiSpirit"isverytimelysinceprotectionistandunilateralpoliticalapproachestendto"disrupttheexistingregionalandinternationalorder""ShanghaiSpirit,"asetoffundamentalprinciplesencompassingmutualtrust,mutualbenefit,equalityandconsultation,"couldessentiallyberegardedasanantidote"totheseapproaches,,deputychairoftheBelarus-ChinaFriendshipSociety,highlightedXisremarksonbuildingunityandmutualrespect."Weshouldrespecteachotherschoiceofdevelopmentpathsandaccommodateeachotherpositionsandboostharmonyandunitybyseekingcommongroundandsettingasidedifferences,"nbetweenmemberstatesandobservers,,formersecretary-generaloftheNepalesegovernment,saidthathewasimpressedbythementionofculturalexchangesandthedevelopmentofhumanresourcesinXisproposalsinthesetwoareasareearnestlyimplemented,theregionwillrealizeasubstantialboosttoitsindustrialupgradeandpossiblybecomethecenteroftheglobaleconomy,,chiefeditoroftheGeorgianNewsdayNewsAgency,saidthatXisspeechwasimbuedwiththespiritofcooperation,consultationandinclusivenessand"chartsthecourse"sproposalstoimproveglobalgovernanceandhisvisionforacommunitywithasharedfutureformankindreflectthecommonaspirationofpeopleindifferentpartsoftheworld,andhasofferedabrand-newperspectiveastowhytheworldneedstoabandonaColdWarmentalityandseekglobalcooperation,hesaid.(XinhuareportersZhuRuiqingandTangLuinColombo,WangHuijuaninBelgrade,,LuanHaiinMoscow,ZhaoXuinNewDelhi,WeiZhongjieandLiJiainMinsk,LiMinginBaku,andZhouShengpinginKathmandualsocontributedtothereport.)

ChildrenplayonasquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)StudentsofamiddleschoolplayfootballinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmangoeswindsurferinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,May4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)CitizensposeforphotoattheOlympicParkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)ChildrenpracticerollerskatinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmandoesexercisesataparkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AsailboatisseeninthewaterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)

  AsoldierfromtheGurkhaunitisondutytoensurethesecurityfortheupcomingTrump-KimsummitinSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)DPRKleadune12attheCapellaHotelonSentosaIsland,(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)PolicegatheroutsidetheIstana,theofficialresidenceandofficeofthePresidentofSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)

  VolunteerscleanwasteonbeachinDongshanCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/SongWeiwei)VolunteersfreefriesinSanya,southChinasHainanProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ChenWenwu)MembersofChinasAntarcticexpeditionputamicroplasticcollectorintothesea,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/BaiGuolong)CleanersclearthefloatingwasteinthefishbreedingraftsinHuangqiTownshipofLianjiangCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)ChinasmannedsubmersibleJiaolongispreparedtodiveintheYapTrenchinthewestPacific,June13,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiuShiping)PearlcultivatorstransfershellsatapearlcultivationfarminBeihaiCity,southChinasGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ZhangAilin)AlittlegirlstaysatacampinQingdaoHaichangPolarOceanParkinQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvince,May19,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AseaweedharvestboatsailsataseaweedfarminSanshaTownshipinXiapuCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong),2018showsthesceneryofXinyingmangrovenationalwetlandparkinsouthChina,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangEnyu)ChinasvicecommerceministeronWednesdayrefutedclaimsthatChinawastheonethatstartedthe"tradewar"byforcingforeignfirmstosharetechnology,callingit"fakenews"and"groundless.""ThereisnolawinChinathatforcesforeignfirmstotransfertheirtechnologytotheirChinesepartners,",itiscompletelyinlinewithWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)rulesforChinatoaskforeigninvestorstoestablishjointventureenterpriseswhenenteringcertainChineseindustries,eementswithoutgovernmentintervention,(IPR),notingthatthecountryhasimproveditslegalandadministrativransferpractices,theUnitedStateshasbreacheditspromisesthatitwillnotdeterminewhetherothercountrieshaveviolatedWTOruleswiththeSection301investigationunilaterallyandwilldealwithtradedisputesstrictlyinaccordancewithWTOprocedures,hesaid."WhohasactuallystartedthetradewarTheanswerisself-evident,"theviceministersaid.  

  (CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.

  PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornlastyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsgiantpandasbornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplayonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)ChinesePresidentXiJinping(C)andotherleadersattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitposeforagroupphotoaheadofabanquetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/DingLin)ChinesePresidentXiJinpingaddressesabanquetheldforguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/XieHuanchi)ChinesePresidentXiJinping(C,front)andguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitheadforabanquetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/LiXueren)

  AresidentmakesZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)PeoplepickleavestomakeZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinforestofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)AwomancleansleavesformakingZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinarivuletofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)Volunteersmakezongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,fortheelderlypersonsofnofamilytocelebratetheDuanwuFestivalatacommunityinZhenjiangCity,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/ShiYucheng)

  AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang(C),thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,poseswithvolunteersattheopeningofitsrestorationhospitaltothepublicinBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)StaffmembersrepairculturalrelicsatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AvolunteertalkstovisitorsaboutculturalrelicsrestorationatahospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)

  ChildrenplayonasquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)StudentsofamiddleschoolplayfootballinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmangoeswindsurferinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,May4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)CitizensposeforphotoattheOlympicParkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)ChildrenpracticerollerskatinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmandoesexercisesataparkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AsailboatisseeninthewaterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang),2017showstwilightthroughtheSeventeenArchBridgeintheSummerPalaceinBeijing,capitalofChina.(Xinhua/LiuXianguo)China,700activitieswillbeheldacrossChinatocelebratethisyearsculturalandnaturalheritageday,,whichwasestablishedtosafegstakealookat20culturalheritagesitesinChina,,originallynamedQingyiYuan,ortheGardenofClearRipples,wasanimperialgardenconstructedin1750byEmperorQianlonginabidtocelebratehismother,emperorsandempressesspenttheirleisuretimethere,eselandscapegardendesign,,capitalofsouthwestChinasTibetAutonomousRegion,,2018,togreettheSpringFestivalandTibetanNewYear.(Xinhua/Chogo),LhasaThePotalaPalace,winterpalaceoftheDalaiLama,hassymbolizedTibetanBuddhismanditscen,madeupoftheWhiteandRedPalaceswiththeirancillarybuildings,isbuiltonRedMountaininthecenterofLhasaValley,atanaltitudeof3,,JokhangTempleMonasteryandNorbulingkawereaddedtothelistrespectivelyin1994,,2018showsthesnowsceneryofWestLakeinHangzhou,eastChinaZhejiangProvince,,2018.(Xinhua/HuangZongzhi),,WestLakeCulturalLandscapeofHangzhouhasinspiredfamouspoets,,pagodas,pavilions,gardensandornamentaltrees,,2018showsseaofcloudsafterrainfallatHuangyaguansectionoftheGreatWallinTianjin,northChina.(Xinhua/YangYushan),theGreatWallwindsupanddownacrossdeserts,grasslands,mountainsandplateaus,,horsetracks,watchtowers,andsheltersonthewall,,000years,,itisstilloneofthemostappealingattractionsallaroundt,oneofthegreatestwondersoftheworld,,northwestChinasGansuProvince,,2016.(Photo/Xinhua),Gansuprovince,theMogaocaves,alsoknownastheThousand-BuddhaCaves,aretheworldslargest,mostrichlyendowed,,atthecrossroadsoftradeaswellasreligious,,thecarvingofthecavesstartedin366ADandcontinuedforabout1,,housingabout45,000squaremetersofmuralsandmorethan2,000paintedsculptures,,wi(Photo/Xinhua)sYuanDynastyinChina,slegendarycapitalcity,designedbytheMongolrulersChineseadvisor,LiuBingzhong,,includingtemples,palaces,tombs,nomadicencampmentsandtheTiefangangCanal,,,:/FengJun):anImperialSacrificialAltarinBeijingLocatedinthesouthernpartofBeijing,theTempleofHeavenisamagnificentcomplexoffirs,andisthelargestoneinBeijingamongseveralroyalaltarstoHeaven,Earth,theSun,,SoutheastChinasFujianprovince,onDec9,2016.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WangDongming)e15thand20thcenturiesover120kilometersinthesouth-westofFujianprovince,irfunctionexe,,efilm,resembling"scarfs"and"dresses",aspartoftheirrestorationintheEmperorQinshihuangsMausoleumSiteMuseuminXian,Shaanxiprovince,Feb23,2015.(Photo/CFP)ntainingterracottawarriorsandhorsesarelocatedinLintongcounty,nearXi’ancity,,,themausoleumislaidoutinlinewiththedimensionsofXianyang,,,,ridianGate(WuMen)ofthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,April17,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)ForbiddenCity,locatedinthecenterofBeijing,,,,(anareaenclosedbyfourpoles).In1924,theimperialfamilyoftheQingDynastywasremovedfromtheForbiddenCity,age,nearMountHuangshan,Anhuiprovince,inMay.(Photo:ChinaDaily/WangHao),HuangshancityinsouthAnhuiprovince,thetwotraditionalvillagesXidiandHongcunarearchitecturalcomplexes,,landscape,architecturalform,decorationandconstructiontechniquesallretaint,northChinasShanxiProvince,April22,,listedasaUNESCOWorldCulturalHeritagesitein2001,willwitnessatourismpeakastheMayDayholidayiscoming.(Photo:Xinhua/YanYan),some16kmwestofDatongcity,Shanxiprovince,theYungangGrottoeswerebuiltagainstthemountainandextendaboutonekm(),000statueswithinacarvedareaof18,000squaremeters,YungangGrottoesrepresenttheoutstandin,withtheirstrictunityoflayoutanddesign,coPoliticalPartyForumvisitLiuyuanorLingeringGardeninSuzhou,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,April22,2013.(Xinhua/ShenPeng),whichseekstorecreateminiaturenaturallandscapes,isnotillustratedanybetterthanintheninegardensinthehistoriccityofSuzhou,’,2017showstheviewofChengdesummerresortinnorthChinasHebeiProvince.(Xinhua/LiuMancang),ChengdeIntermsofthegenerallayout,architecturalstyles,constructiontechniques,decorationdetailsandgardenlandscape,theMountainResort,avastcomplexofpalacesandadministrativeandceremonialbuildingsbuiltbetween1703and1792,representsthebroadexchangeandconvergencebetweenHancultureandtheethniccultures-Confucianism,BuddhismandTaoism-andthearchitecturalstylesbetw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  軍事專家三個關鍵詞解讀空軍提升海上方向實戰能力

 
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河南临颍:风雨沧桑小商桥

2019-08-23 10:01 | 河南日报 | 手机看国搜 | 打印 | 收藏 | 扫描到手机
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核心提示:?风雨沧桑小商桥,千年过往,古桥留痕,它的每一寸栏杆,都布满了斑斑陈迹;每一块青石板,都见证过悠悠往事。

小商桥

杨再兴墓

原标题 风雨沧桑小商桥

小商桥,坐落在漯河市临颍县与郾城区交界处的小商河上。

千年过往,古桥留痕,它的每一寸栏杆,都布满了斑斑陈迹;每一块青石板,都见证过悠悠往事。俯身侧耳,仿佛听得到历史深处繁忙商旅的喧哗和战场厮杀的呐喊——

◎古桥与英雄:杨再兴之死

南宋绍兴十年(公元1140年),金兵以完颜宗弼(兀术)为统帅,兵分四路大举来犯,岳飞奉命坐镇郾城,指挥抗金。

七月初,金兀术探知岳家军驻兵不多,倾巢出动,直扑郾城,企图利用岳家军兵力分散的机会摧毁岳飞的指挥中枢。

岳家军得到探报:金军1.5万骑兵,着鲜艳铠甲,自北面汹汹而来。金兵中有一支精锐部队,使用的是一种叫做“拐子马”的骑阵,三个一组,把骑士和战马用皮绳串连起来,在大平原上纵横冲突,所向披靡,凶猛异常。

大敌来犯,气焰嚣张,岳家军正面临着一场恶战。岳飞深思熟虑,想出破阵之法。他命令岳云率精锐骑兵,出城迎击,双方展开激战。

《宋史·岳飞传》中说,岳飞又命令步兵“以麻扎刀入阵”,专砍马足,近身肉搏,“手拽厮劈”。鏖战数十回合,金军尸横遍野,溃败而去,岳家军取得著名的郾城大捷。

金兀术败退,他痛哭道:“自从起兵以来,都是依靠‘拐子马’取胜,没想到今天竟会如此!”

岳家军乘胜追击,岳飞部将杨再兴、王兰、高林等率领的三百铁骑在小商桥与金兵相遇。

一场激战。杨再兴欲活捉金兀术,跃马横枪在敌军中奋勇冲杀,身中数十箭,仍与金军厮杀不止。战斗中,杨再兴不慎连人带马陷入小商河淤泥之中,岸边金兵万箭齐发,射向了杨再兴。

杨再兴壮烈阵亡,年仅37岁。

听到杨再兴阵亡的消息,岳飞急速率军赶到小商桥。他万分痛惜,长哭不止,隆重祭奠杨再兴,率全军举哀,火化英雄尸体。《宋史·杨再兴》中记载,杨再兴尸体被焚化后,竟“得箭镞二升”。

岳飞把杨再兴的骨灰和遗物安葬在小商桥北200米处,并取来一块青石为墓碑,用枪(矛)尖刻下“杨再兴坟墓”五个大字。

中国岳飞研究会会员李文辉在《岳飞〈满江红·怒发冲冠〉考证》一文中说:祭过杨再兴,岳飞站在小商桥上,凭栏远眺,百感交集,他悲愤交加,写下了千古绝唱《满江红》。

也有人说,《满江红》大约创作于绍兴十年七月下旬至岳飞入狱的一年多的时间内。其准确的时间和地点,专家、学者们至今还在争论。

安葬了杨再兴,岳家军继续追击金兵。《鄂王行实编年》中记载,岳飞率岳家军攻抵朱仙镇,击溃金兵数千骑,准备渡黄河乘胜追敌,不料一日之内接到让他“班师回朝”的12道金牌……

800多年前的一段悲壮往事,为小商桥抹上了一层浓重的悲剧色彩。

大暑,阵雨过后,杨再兴墓园树木葱茏,幽静肃穆。

园内,碑碣林立。杨再兴墓冢,周长100多米,高约10米,松柏茂密成林。墓前,青砖修砌的仿宋式碑楼内,留存着一块高1.7米、宽0.7米的断碑,正是岳飞当年刻字的那通碑。碑上,“杨”字已不见踪迹,仅仅留下“再兴坟墓”四个字,灰白字迹,依稀可辨。

杨再兴是当地人心目中的神,被尊为“杨爷”。据介绍,这里一年四季都会有人前来焚香祭拜,来人会抓一把土培到墓冢上去,天长日久,其墓越积越大。

◎古桥与大师:相见恨晚

1982年6月,中科院自然科学史研究所助理研究员李颖霖,在阅读介绍杨再兴陵墓的文章中,看到提及的小商桥,县志记载它“建于隋开皇四年”。

李颖霖对小商桥的建桥时间非常关注,查阅了大量历史文献,汇总后向有关部门做了反映,引起了我国著名桥梁专家茅以升和中科院自然科学史研究所的重视。

当年9月24日,由中科院自然科学史研究所主持,《中国古桥技术史》编写组派出76岁高龄的袁德熙和胡达、李颖霖三人,赶赴临颍实地考察。

35年前的这一次临颍之行,注定要为中国桥梁史掀开厚重的一页。5天的考察结束后,3位桥梁专家提交了一份考察报告:小商桥是隋代石拱桥,年代可能早于河北赵县的赵州桥。

这可是个惊人的发现!此前,世界公认最早的石拱桥是赵州桥,建于隋代大业年间,比欧洲这种形式的桥早了1200多年,它结构科学、造型优美、工艺精湛,堪称世界桥梁史上的奇迹。

1986年,茅以升在他主编的《中国古桥技术史》一书中,对小商桥进行详细的论述,认为:“桥建于隋初,自属可信,现存桥式,是否即创建时形式,尚有待进一步考证。但由此可以推知敞肩式圆拱石拱桥,在隋代赵州桥以前已有相当的发展。”

1992年1月,我国著名古建筑学家罗哲文到小商桥考察。

临颍县70多岁的村民邢民甫,至今还清楚记得当年的情景。他回忆道,70多岁的罗哲文一看到小商桥,简直变成了一个兴奋的孩子,在桥上、桥下来回跑着看,对着桥上的石刻一个劲儿拍照,看桥身时几乎躺在了草地上……罗哲文兴奋不已,不停地说:“太好了,太好了!”

在《河南临颍小商桥》一书中,罗哲文说:“小商桥是中国古桥中的一个奇迹。它创建于隋,经历代重修,现存桥身主体建筑的风格和饰面雕刻为宋代遗存……此桥现存的情况非常不好,破坏甚重,应当抢救维修。”

河南省古代建筑保护研究所副所长、研究员牛宁说,按照县志的记载,小商桥距今最近的一次维修,是在康熙十四年(公元1675年)。1969年之前,每年还有数百辆汽车从桥上驶过,桥面栏板、望柱早已被撞伤,桥面凹陷,桥面石脱落、破碎,有的甚至形成空洞,桥身上杂草丛生。当地夏季暴雨频发,危及桥身。一遇大风,桥根便在桥身和券石间剧烈摇动,桥石松动。

由牛宁负责的小商桥维修工作,从1994年8月开始。工作队先后清理出土了拱券石、龙头石、龙尾石等各类建筑构件178件,分类后又一一归位。

特别是栏板和望柱,先后有宋、金、元、明、清五个朝代的构件出土,它们被安装在桥梁两侧,保存下不同朝代的历史信息,增加了古桥的文化内涵与观赏价值。

河道中还出土了大量的枪(矛)、刀、箭镞、铁锤、戟等冷兵器。为了准确探明小商桥的修建年代,工作队从河道中央和桥墩下部的河床内,各截取一段木桩,进行碳-14测定。有意思的是,前者年代为1210±80年,后者年代为930±60年,这意味着,桥下河床的木桩,比桥墩下部的木桩更为古老。这一结果,正符合之前的推断:隋代或唐代有一座桥,横跨于小商河之上,而宋元时期重建的小商桥,可能就是在原来的桥址之上。

小商桥的维修工作历时一年,最大限度地保持了古桥的风貌。2001年,小商桥被列为全国重点文物保护单位。

◎古桥与时光:流水无言

夏日清晨,霞光洒在古朴的小商桥上,两岸绿柳垂丝,桥下碧波荡漾。

眼前的小商桥,长21.3米,宽6.45米,桥下有一圆弧形主拱,主拱两侧各有一小腹拱,看上去精巧雅致,如同长虹卧波。

桥体全部是红色石英砂岩,石条都经过精心打磨,光滑整齐,上用青石铺面,栏板上,历代修桥捐资的各类题记随处可见。

拱桥遍体石刻,图案众多,两边龙门石上刻有饕餮纹,主拱上分布着祥云、天马、龙、凤、狮、麒麟,拱楣刻有牡丹、荷花、几何纹,大小拱的交接处,装置兽头四只,水兽面目狰狞。

罗哲文称赞小商桥的拱形“结构独创,修造工程技术先进,造型优美”。桥梁专家解释,小商桥采用的是小于半圆的弧段,这一设计的奇妙在于,与半圆形的拱相比,在相同跨度下,它大大减低了桥梁的高度,在相同高度时,它又能得到更宽的跨度,是拱桥技术的一次发展。而小拱架于大拱上,既节省石料,减轻桥梁自重,又可以在河水暴涨时,增加桥洞的过水量,减轻对桥身的冲击。

史料记载,小商河原名小溵河,是颍水的一段支流。北宋初年,为避宋太祖之父赵宏殷之讳,改溵为商,桥也随之改为小商桥。历史上,小商桥为南北交通要道,是兵家必争之地。

当今的小商桥,北去县城13公里,南距漯河市12公里,西靠京广铁路,东临107国道。

1000多年来,古桥历经风雨,饱受沧桑,数次遭到战争的破坏,承受了10多次的地震,仍屹立不倒。

沿着小商河曲曲折折的河岸向上游行走,会惊奇地发现,桥的选址非常讲究:小商河自西南方向先向北流,在距桥200米的上游折向东去,减缓了水势后才穿桥而过,很大程度地减轻了水流对桥的冲击。

对于小商桥的遗存状况,气象学者马合法从气候条件入手进行了认真分析:该地气候适宜,水温长期处于16℃左右,深埋泥水之中的木桩,内外胀缩均匀,很少受到剧烈膨胀、收缩的影响,不易被腐蚀。同时,当地风速低,风振小,桥身也不易被风化。

岁月无言,古桥不语。它习惯了四季更迭、人来车往,听惯了流水汩汩、蝉嘶鸟鸣,更目睹过金戈铁马、血染夕阳,它默然静立,一站就是千年,任流水落花,任世事变幻……他(她)来了,你来了,摸一摸石狮子,拍一拍石栏杆,踏一踏车辙的印痕,看一看桥上镌刻的捐资修桥人的名字:高琪、欧秀才、郑押司……这时候,历史就从桥下的水面浮现出来,与你对望,和你交流,你也就慢慢懂得了小商桥。(记者 赵慎珠/ 文图 绘图/王伟宾)

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